Filed under: Stroke Prevention & Care, Telemedicine | Tags: acute stroke, AcuteCare Telemedicine, Atlanta healthcare news, atlanta hospitals, atlanta neurology, atlanta telemedicine, brain health, clot busting drugs, decade of the brain, diagnose and adios, Dr. James Kiely, future medicine, future of stroke, heart and brain, Keith Sanders, Lisa Johnston, matthews gwynn, modern medicine, neurology and cardiology, stroke care, stroke emergency, stroke hospitals, stroke medication, stroke prevention, telehealth, telemeedicine, teleneurology, therapeutic intervention, thrombectomy, thrombus, tPA, tPA for stroke, treatment of migraine
Before the advent of therapeutic interventions in the field, the old joke about neurology was “diagnose and adios.” Neurologists were known for our abilities to locate exactly where in the nervous system a problem existed, communicate information to patients and physicians, and then move on. The lack of options for intervention was a vexing and frustrating problem.
Congress declared that the 1990s would be the “Decade of the Brain.” Perhaps because of this – or maybe in spite of it – the 90’s did see huge advances in treatments of many of brain diseases. Early on, the first effective therapy for multiple sclerosis was introduced, followed by several others. Suddenly, a once untreatable disease could be controlled in many cases. Likewise, the treatment of migraine was revolutionized by the development of triptans such as sumatriptan and rizatriptan that effectively aborted the headache without the terrible side effects of nausea or sedation common with previous medications. New seizure drugs arrived on the market that were more effective than their predecessors, with fewer side effects. Botulinum toxin proved to be a significant advance for many patients with movement disorders. More recently, the same treatment is effectively used for chronic headache.
In 1995, tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) was approved for the treatment of stroke. Finally, one of the most devastating neurological diseases could be addressed in a meaningful way with real outcome improvements. Thanks to the same medication used by cardiologists for many years for the treatment of heart attacks, hundreds of thousands of patients can now have improved outcomes after suffering a stroke.
Nevertheless, many patients with stroke don’t improve significantly after receiving this medication, in part because the clot inside an artery did not truly dissolve once the medication was given in the vein. To help solve this conundrum, the TPA could be given directly into the blocked artery by a catheter. Unfortunately, this all too frequently was either ineffective or resulted in life-threatening hemorrhages into the brain..
In cardiology, this same problem was essentially made moot by the technique of angioplasty, in which a balloon is inserted into the blocked artery and expanded, pushing open the artery. When the same technique is used in the brain, however, the artery often bursts, in part because the brain arteries lack the tough outer layer that helps ensure such rupture does not happen as often in the heart. Also, a surgeon can come behind a cardiologist and rescue the patient with an open-heart procedure – no such thing can be done in the brain. And so, approaching the new century, neurology was still, as it always had been, about 10 to 15 years behind cardiology. What to do?
The answer came in the form of a slightly different technique. The procedure still opens up the artery, but rather than pushing the artery open with a balloon, neurologiststake a similar catheter and simplyeither suck the thrombus (clot) up the tube, or snare it with a small cage and pull it out. Either method opens the artery to blood flow without actually having to press on it or traumatize it. This is called thrombectomy and is the newest and best treatment for severe strokes. Furthermore, it can be combined with intravenous TPA treatment at the outset, and together, the two achieve much better outcomes than IV TPA alone.
In order to do this procedure, the patient has to be seen at a state-of-the-art hospital with the appropriate equipment and personnel. Since there is a critical shortage of neurologists nationwide, the same problems facing patients who require TPA – little or no neurology consultation available in rural or underserved hospitals – are amplified; even fewer hospitals have the resources to provide both treatments in tandem.Once again, teleneurology can come to the rescue. Through teleneurology consultation, experienced neurologists can determine which patients are appropriate to transfer to an advanced stroke center. AcuteCare Telemedicine has been doing this successfully. Furthermore, as more neurologists graduate with training in the latest and most effective procedures, more patients will not only survive their strokes, but will be far less disabled from them. By the end of this decade, cardiology and neurology will stand on roughly equal footing in the treatment of heart and brain.